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Congenital Heart Diseases and its Types

Congenital Heart Diseases and its types

Congenital heart diseases are heart defects that exist since birth, which means the child is born with the heart defect. When the child doesn’t get enough nutrition while development, it causes developmental issues that can affect any part of the body and when the inadequate nutrition causes developmental defect in heart then it is known as congenital heart defect. The defect or problem can be in the heart valves, arteries, or development in heart. In some cases the defects are minor and do not require any medical assistance; it does not cause any problem and heals with time as the child grows. In some cases, a child with congenital heart disease requires constant medical care and surgical treatment in severe cases. Today, with the help of advanced technology the doctor is able to identify heart defect while the child is in the womb. This helps the doctor to provide appropriate nutritional needs and medical care in order to decrease the chances of having a heart disease.


Usually, some of the congenital heart defect does not show any signs or symptoms of a heart disease. But in many cases the child shows some specific symptoms that shows the possibility of congenital heart disease.  A few symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Cyanosis – bluish skin, lips and nails
  • Fatigue
  • Abnormal heart disease
  • Edema- swelling of body tissues
  • Chest pain
  • Nausea
  • Lowered growth rate

Different Congenital heart defects

Aortic Valve Stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis is a type of congenital heart disease in which the blood is unable to pump out of the heart due to the narrowed aorta which is the main artery. It greatly hampers the flow of oxygen rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body that results in the thickening of the left ventricle due to which the heart has to work a lot harder than usual. This kind of heart disease causes a lot of other problems as enough oxygen is it supplied to the body.

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is a type of congenital heart disease in which the pulmonary valve which is responsible for the blood flow from the right heart of the right ventricle to the lungs gets narrower than usual. This again makes the heart work harder in order to pump the blood from that narrowed valve that goes to the lungs that cause fatigue. As a result, the person does not get enough blood purified in the lungs and the entire circulatory system gets affected due to this.

Septal Defect

 A Septal Defect implies that the child is born with a hole in the septum of the heart. The septum separates the left and right chambers of the heart.  And if there is a hole in that part of the heart then the blood in the two chambers gets mixed which can lead to a lot of circulatory problems.

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

In Atrial Septal Defect, there is a hole in the wall of the upper chambers or the Atrium that causes the mix of blood from the Left Atrium to the Right Atrium. Some of the Atrial Septal Defects get healed on their own but most of them require a minimally invasive catheter procedure or surgical techniques in order to close the hole. There are a lot of medical procedures with the help of which this kind this condition can be treated.

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

In Ventricular Septal Defect, there is a hole in the wall of the lower chambers or the ventricles that causes the mix of blood from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. In some cases, the defect does not require a medical procedure and it gets healed but many still require surgery in order to repair it.

Truncus Arteriosus

Truncus Arteriosus is a rare congenital heart disease in which the two main arteries, i.e pulmonary artery, and aorta don’t get developed properly and exist as a single vessel. This causes a lot of blood flow into the lungs that causes pressure on the lungs which further causes breathing difficulty. This defect is fatal and requires immediate medical care.

Rukmani Birla Hospital is one of the best multi-specialty hospitals that provides the best cardiac treatment.  It is a renowned hospital, recognized as one of the best cardiac hospitals in Jaipur. We have a team of highly experienced cardiologists and healthcare professionals who are dedicated to providing the ultimate cardiac care.  For any heart-related problem or query contact RBH hospital.

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