• Rukmani Birla Hospital,Gopalpura Bypass Road, Near Triveni Bridge,Gopalpura,Jaipur – 302018.

Category Archives: Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery

COSMETIC SURGERY – TYPES AND TIPS

Cosmetic surgery is a form of plastic surgery that aims to enhance the physical appearance of a person by using surgical methods. Cosmetic surgery, as of today, is one of the most sought after a medical procedure and involves a lot of money. Initially used to repair appearance defects, injury marks, unstructured features, etc. – cosmetic surgery now has now been seen and widely accepted medium to change their appearance to enhance their self-esteem, social acceptance and worth. Cosmetic surgery can be used to remake any body part and is often non-reversible; hence, a lot of caution, careful consideration must be done before proceeding for the surgery. 

Types of cosmetic surgery

Some of the most common types of cosmetic surgery procedures include:

Breast Surgery: Cosmetic breast surgeries include breast augmentation, breast reduction and breast lift.

  • breast augmentation surgery increases the size of the breasts, as well as can change the shape of the breasts, as per desire. Breast augmentation is considered by women who either feel that their breasts are small, disfigured, varied in size or if the breasts have changed post-pregnancy. The surgery involves saline or silicone gel prosthetics.
  • Breast reduction involves reducing the size and weight of heavy breasts, creating a more balanced breast contour in proportion to the body.
  • Breast lift involves removing the skin and glandular tissue to reduce the size of the breasts, while at the same time, lifting the remaining tissue to make the breasts appear lifted.

Liposuction: A surgical procedure that involvesa suction technique to remove fat from some areas of the body such as arms, abdomen, hips, buttocks, thighs, calves, chest, back, and neck. Liposuction also shapes these body areas, enhancing their appearance.The surgical methoduses cannulas and hollow metal tubes to suction the fat. This is not a weight-loss surgery since the weight loss from liposuction is relatively very less than that from bariatric surgery. The surgery is the ideal choice for people who have excessive fat accumulation in certain body areas, while the overall appearance of the body is stable. The surgery also helps to change the shape of the body part and is thus also called lipoplasty and body contouring.

Vulvovaginal Surgery: Vulvovaginal surgery or more popularly known as a vaginoplasty, aims to tighten a vagina that has started to slack or has become loose because of vaginal childbirth and increasing age. 

Abdominoplasty: Abdominoplasty or more commonly known as the tummy tuck surgery, is a method to reduce the excess skin and fat from the abdomen to make it thinner and more firm. The surgery removes fat and skin from the lower and middle abdomen to stiffen the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall.

Buttock Augmentation: This surgery is undertaken to enhance the size of the buttocks and making them look bigger. It sources graft fat and tissue from other parts of the body by using liposuction. The surgery can also enhance the contour and shape of the buttocks.

Buttock Lift/Lower Body Lift: This surgery involves removing excess fat from the buttocks, hips and thighs to make them tight and fit, while simultaneously lifting them up.

Blepharoplasty or Eyelid Surgery: The surgery reshapes the eyelids that have started to droop, with ageing skin and bags on the lower eyelids. It can tighten the skin and also change the shape of the face.

Rhinoplasty: Often known as the nose job, the surgery aims to reshape or improve the appearance of the nose by either reshaping the tip, minimizing bony hump, reducing the size, etc. The nose job can also be done to improve breathing in some cases.

Otoplasty: Commonly known as the ear surgery, it aims to treat misshapen ears by suturing them closer to the head and reshaping the cartilage.

Rhytidectomy: This type of cosmetic surgery is done toremove wrinkles and fine lines from the face, giving the face a more youthful appeal. The procedure reduces sagging of the skin from the cheeks and enhances the jawline while also making other contouring changes to the face.

Browplasty: Often done in combination with other cosmetic procedures, a browplasty aims to reduce the drooping eyebrows and remove the wrinkles and fine lines from the forehead.

Other procedures: Several other less invasive procedures include chemical peeling, fillers, grafting and laser treatment. Chemical peels help to reduce acne, treat pores, reduce acne marks, remove wrinkles, etc. Fillers are used to creating a fuller and smoother appearance of the face. Fat grafting involves transferring fat from one body part through liposuction and injecting it in areas required such as lips, hands, etc. Lastly, laser treatment is used to treat wrinkles, fine lines, abnormal pigmentation, etc.

Tips for Cosmetic Surgery

It is very important to know all the pros and cons, lifestyle adjustments, precautions, side effects, etc. before opting for cosmetic surgery. Some tips that will help make a better decision include:

  • Choose an experienced surgeon with a good track record
  • Talk to the surgeon about your concerns and why you want the surgery
  • Speak to the surgeon about the area of surgery and seek advice; though make your own decision without much persuasion, but the advice is always better
  • Get complete details about the procedure, and analyze its advantages and disadvantages thoroughly
  • Assess all adjustments, risks, precautions, side effects that might be short-term or long-term
  • Choose the right time for surgery; avoid strenuous times such as shifting homes, marriage, changing jobs, cities, etc.
  • Choose cosmetic surgery if it gives you the confidence, do no aim to please any other person
  • Do not travel too far for the surgery; in case needed, make sure all arrangement is made before, especially if travelling abroad for the surgery.
  • Be aware of any complications that may arise during or after the surgery, such as:
  • Pain
  • Disturbance in movement or normal functioning of the body part
  • Appearance of white skin near an injection site
  • Stroke or signs of stroke

In all, cosmetic surgery, for any reason should be done after considerable evaluation.

PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

Plastic and reconstructive surgeries are terms that are used interchangeably and aim to treat body structures affected aesthetically or functionally by conditions such as congenital, developmental abnormalities, trauma, injury, infection, birth defects, tumour or disease. The surgeries are primarily done with the intention to enhance the functionality, while in some cases, it could also involve improving the physical appearance of the affected body structure. While technically the surgery aimed to enhance the functionality is known as reconstructive surgery, while the one used to improve the appearance of the body structure is categorised as plastic surgery. Though, both types of surgeries differ from cosmetic surgery, which is solely done to improvise physical appearance due to personal reasons or age. Reconstructive surgery procedures are the primary basis of all plastic surgeries, with the aim to improve the functionality and appearance of structures after congenital, acquired or traumatic problems. 

Who needs reconstructive plastic surgery?

Broadly, two types of people opt for reconstructive plastic surgery, including:

  • People who have birth defects such as cleft lip, facial anomalies, hand deformities, etc.
  • People who deformities caused because of accidents, infection, injury, tumour disease or increasing age.

Types of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery

There are several types of reconstructive plastic surgery, which is done to improve functions and correct appearance.

Brachial Plexus Repair: The brachial plexus is a complex network of nerves that monitors the movement and sensation of the arms and hands. This surgery is done to reconnect nerves or repair nerves by using high-powered microscopes and specialised instruments. The aim of the surgery is to restore control of the nerves lost due to trauma, age, weakness, injury, disease, cancer, etc. 

Breast Reconstruction: A surgery that involves reshaping or rebuilding the breasts that have beendeformed or removed due to breast cancer or any other problem. The surgery involves using autologous tissue, prosthetics, etc. to reconstruct a natural-looking breast.

Breast Augmentation and Reduction: A breast augmentation or reduction surgery is undertaken to increase or reduce the size of the breasts that are deformed genetically or due to certain disease or problem. The surgery can also change the shape of the breasts. Breast augmentation is considered by women who either feel that their breasts are small, disfigured, varied in size, or if the breasts have changed post-pregnancy. The surgery involves saline or silicone gel prosthetics. 

Breast reduction involves reducing the size and weight of heavy breasts, creating a more balanced breast contour in proportion to the body.

Palatoplasty: This surgery is specialised to reconstruct the palate in a person with a cleft lip.

Gynecomastia: This is a surgery to reduce the enlarged male breasts by removing excess fat and glandular tissue in order to provide a flatter, firmer and enhanced masculine contour to the chest.

Hand Surgery: Hand surgery comprises of various sub-surgeries all of which mainly aim to restore the functionality of the hand and fingers, which could have been impacted due to injuries, trauma and rheumatic diseases – that change and damage the structure of the hand. This includes tendon and nerve repair, joint replacement, etc.

Scar Revision: A type of surgery which is undertaken to improve the condition and appearance of the scars on any body part. This surgery also aims to restore any lost function, correct skin disfigurement, which can be a result of a wound, trauma, injury, accident, poor healing or an old surgery. This can further be categorised into:

  • Hypertrophic scars
  • Contractures
  • Facial scars

A speciality of the surgery known as Z-Plasty can be done to reposition the scar.

Main Techniques of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Some of the main techniques that are used to perform plastic and reconstructive surgeries include:

Skin Grafting: This technique is used to take a healthy patch of skin from a body part and moving it, transplanting it to another area of the body whose skin cover could have been damaged due to reasons such as burn, injury, illness, etc.

Tissue Expansion: A surgical procedure that enables the body to grow additional skin by stretching the surrounding tissue. In this surgery, an expander (a balloon-like device) is put under the skin near to the area that needs to be repaired; the area is then slowly filled with salt water to make the skin stretch and grow.

Flap Surgery: This is a very common technique in plastic and reconstructive surgery in which a tissue is lifted from an area known as the donor site and is moved to a recipient area with intact blood supply. It is different from a flap surgery since the recipient has its own blood supply unlike in graft.

Microsurgery: Microsurgery uses magnification and very tiny sutures to connect small arteries, veins and nerves in order to reinstate the blood or nerve supply to living tissue.

In all, plastic and reconstructive surgery is a boon for people with deformed and dysfunctional structures. However, it must be undertaken after careful consideration and consultation with the doctor.

Complications of reconstructive plastic surgery

While the complications involved in a reconstructive plastic surgery depend on the type of surgery and the structure concerned; though some general complications involved are:

  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Bruising
  • Anaesthesia allergies
  • Blood clotting
  • Pain

Risks Factors

Some people are at higher risk of facing complications during the surgery. These risks factors include:

  • Smoking
  • Connective-tissue damage
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Increased blood circulation at the concerned site
  • Compromised immune system
  • HIV Infection
  • Poor nutrition

Present health conditions play a very critical role in determining the complications of the surgery; hence, a detailed discussion with the doctor about the existing health problems such as heart disease, lung problem, diabetes, etc. – is necessary before deciding on the surgery.

WHAT IS PLASTIC SURGERY? HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM COSMETIC SURGERY?

Plastic surgery is the reconstruction or repair of body parts through the transfer of tissue from another part of the body due to reasons, which could involve an injury, trauma, birth disorder or cosmetic enhancement. Plastic surgery can be directed to improve, restore function as well as appearance. Plastic surgery can be done on any part of the body except the central nervous system. Some common plastic surgeries include:

  • Skin – for scars, burns, cancer, birthmarks, tattoo removal, etc.
  • Facial skeleton
  • Congenital issues such as deformed ears, cleft palate, cleft lip, webbed fingers, etc.

That said, plastic surgery can be used for both cosmetic and reconstructive reasons. Hence, the terms are often used interchangeably but the two are different specialities.

Types of Plastic Surgery

There are two types of plastic surgeries including:

Reconstructive plastic surgery: This stream is focussed on treating patients that have been affected aesthetically or functionally by problems such as infections, diseases, injuries, trauma, congenital and developmental abnormalities.

Cosmetic plastic surgery: This stream is focussed on treating the patients to enhance, improve or reshape their natural and otherwise perfect body parts. Cosmetic surgery can be performed anywhere on the head, neck and body. This is an elective surgery since the concerned area is functioning properly but lacks preferable aesthetic appeal.

Both surgeries can include minimally invasive, surgical or non-surgical procedures.

Difference between Plastic Surgery and Cosmetic Surgery

On broader terms, cosmetic surgery is a sub-speciality of plastic surgery. However, both aim at improving the body, yet the guiding philosophies, training, research, and goals differ from another.

What is cosmetic surgery?

This cosmetic surgery is a branch of plastic surgery that is completely directed at enhancing the outward appearance of the patient. The principles, techniques, and procedures of cosmetic surgery are entirely aimed to improve the physical and aesthetic appeal of the person, as well as create symmetry and proportion. As mentioned, cosmetic surgery can be performed at any body part and is completely dependent on the choice of the person since the body part concerned is functioning properly.

Cosmetic surgery can be performed by specialities from this field as well as plastic surgeons.

Some common types of cosmetic surgeries include:

  • Breast Surgery: Cosmetic breast surgeries include breast augmentation, breast reduction and breast lift.
  • Liposuction: A surgical procedure that involvesa suction technique to remove fat from some areas of the body such as arms, abdomen, hips, buttocks, thighs, calves, chest, back, and neck. Liposuction also shapes these body areas, enhancing their appearance.
  • Vulvovaginal Surgery: Vulvovaginal surgery or more popularly known as a vaginoplasty, aims to tighten a vagina that has started to slack or has become loose because of vaginal childbirth and increasing age.
  • Abdominoplasty:  Abdominoplasty or more commonly known as the tummy tuck surgery, is a method to reduce the excess skin and fat from the abdomen to make it thinner and more firm.
  • Buttock Augmentation: This surgery is undertaken to enhance the size of the buttocks and making them look bigger.
  • Buttock Lift/Lower Body Lift: This surgery involves removing excess fat from the buttocks, hips and thighs to make them tight and fit, while simultaneously lifting them. Blepharoplasty or Eyelid Surgery: The surgery reshapes the eyelids that have started to droop, with ageing skin and bags on the lower eyelids. It can tighten the skin and also change the shape of the face.
  • Rhinoplasty: Often known as the nose job, the surgery aims to reshape or improve the appearance of the nose by either reshaping the tip, minimizing bony hump, reducing the size, etc.
  • Otoplasty: Commonly known as the ear surgery, it aims to treat misshapen ears by suturing them closer to the head and reshaping the cartilage.
  • Rhytidectomy: This type of cosmetic surgery is done toremove wrinkles and fine lines from the face, giving the face a more youthful appeal.
  • Browplasty: Often done in combination with other cosmetic procedures, a browplasty aims to reduce the drooping eyebrows and remove the wrinkles and fine lines from the forehead.
  • Other procedures: Several other less invasive procedures include chemical peeling, fillers, grafting and laser treatment. Chemical peels help to reduce acne, treat pores, reduce acne marks, remove wrinkles, etc. Fillers are used to creating a fuller and smoother appearance of the face.

What is plastic surgery?

Plastic surgery is a broader speciality that includes cosmetic surgery. Overall, plastic surgery is aimed to repair defects and reconstruct a body part to improve functionality or appearance. That said, plastic surgery is by default and definition reconstructive in nature and hence, cosmetic surgery is treated a stand-alone speciality in some cases. In the general sense, plastic surgery refers to reconstructive surgery that is aimed to repair facial and body defects caused by:

  • Birth
  • Trauma
  • Burns
  • Injury
  • Disease

A plastic surgeon can be trained to perform cosmetic surgery too but the essential foundation of the practice remains reconstructive surgery.

Some of the common types of plastic surgeries include:

Brachial Plexus Repair: The brachial plexus is a complex network of nerves that monitors the movement and sensation of the arms and hands. The surgery aims to restore control of the nerves lost due to trauma, age, weakness, injury, disease, cancer, etc.

Breast Reconstruction: A surgery that involves reshaping or rebuilding the breasts that have beendeformed or removed due to breast cancer or any other problem.

Breast Augmentation and Reduction: A breast augmentation or reduction surgery is undertaken to increase or reduce the size of the breasts that are deformed genetically or due to certain disease or problem. The surgery can also change the shape of the breasts.

Palatoplasty: This surgery is specialised to reconstruct the palate in a person with a cleft lip.

Hand Surgery: Hand surgery comprises of various sub-surgeries all of which mainly aim to restore the functionality of the hand and fingers, which could have been impacted due to injuries, trauma and rheumatic diseases – that change and damage the structure of the hand.

Scar Revision: A type of surgery which is undertaken to improve the condition and appearance of the scars on any body part. This surgery also aims to restore any lost function, correct skin disfigurement which can be a result of a wound, trauma, injury, accident, poor healing or an old surgery.

Overall, even though plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery are used interchangeably, these differ in the overall objective, techniques and basic guidelines.

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