Cosmetic surgery is a form of plastic surgery that aims to enhance the physical appearance of a person by using surgical methods. Cosmetic surgery, as of today, is one of the most sought after a medical procedure and involves a lot of money. Initially used to repair appearance defects, injury marks, unstructured features, etc. – cosmetic surgery now has now been seen and widely accepted medium to change their appearance to enhance their self-esteem, social acceptance and worth. Cosmetic surgery can be used to remake any body part and is often non-reversible; hence, a lot of caution, careful consideration must be done before proceeding for the surgery.  

Types of cosmetic surgery

Some of the most common types of cosmetic surgery procedures include: 

Breast Surgery: Cosmetic breast surgeries include breast augmentation, breast reduction and breast lift.

  • breast augmentation surgery increases the size of the breasts, as well as can change the shape of the breasts, as per desire. Breast augmentation is considered by women who either feel that their breasts are small, disfigured, varied in size or if the breasts have changed post-pregnancy. The surgery involves saline or silicone gel prosthetics.
  • Breast reduction involves reducing the size and weight of heavy breasts, creating a more balanced breast contour in proportion to the body.
  • Breast lift involves removing the skin and glandular tissue to reduce the size of the breasts, while at the same time, lifting the remaining tissue to make the breasts appear lifted. 

Liposuction: A surgical procedure that involves a suction technique to remove fat from some areas of the body such as arms, abdomen, hips, buttocks, thighs, calves, chest, back, and neck. Liposuction also shapes these body areas, enhancing their appearance. The surgical method uses cannulas and hollow metal tubes to suction the fat. This is not a weight-loss surgery since the weight loss from liposuction is relatively very less than that from bariatric surgery. The surgery is the ideal choice for people who have excessive fat accumulation in certain body areas, while the overall appearance of the body is stable. The surgery also helps to change the shape of the body part and is thus also called lipoplasty and body contouring. 

Vulvovaginal Surgery: Vulvovaginal surgery or more popularly known as a vaginoplasty, aims to tighten a vagina that has started to slack or has become loose because of vaginal childbirth and increasing age.  

Abdominoplasty: Abdominoplasty or more commonly known as the tummy tuck surgery, is a method to reduce the excess skin and fat from the abdomen to make it thinner and more firm. The surgery removes fat and skin from the lower and middle abdomen to stiffen the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall. 

Buttock Augmentation: This surgery is undertaken to enhance the size of the buttocks and making them look bigger. It sources graft fat and tissue from other parts of the body by using liposuction. The surgery can also enhance the contour and shape of the buttocks. 

Buttock Lift/Lower Body Lift: This surgery involves removing excess fat from the buttocks, hips and thighs to make them tight and fit, while simultaneously lifting them up.  

Blepharoplasty or Eyelid Surgery: The surgery reshapes the eyelids that have started to droop, with ageing skin and bags on the lower eyelids. It can tighten the skin and also change the shape of the face. 

Rhinoplasty: Often known as the nose job, the surgery aims to reshape or improve the appearance of the nose by either reshaping the tip, minimizing bony hump, reducing the size, etc. The nose job can also be done to improve breathing in some cases. 

Otoplasty: Commonly known as the ear surgery, it aims to treat misshapen ears by suturing them closer to the head and reshaping the cartilage. 

Rhytidectomy: This type of cosmetic surgery is done to remove wrinkles and fine lines from the face, giving the face a more youthful appeal. The procedure reduces sagging of the skin from the cheeks and enhances the jawline while also making other contouring changes to the face. 

Browplasty: Often done in combination with other cosmetic procedures, a browplasty aims to reduce the drooping eyebrows and remove the wrinkles and fine lines from the forehead. 

Other procedures: Several other less invasive procedures include chemical peeling, fillers, grafting and laser treatment. Chemical peels help to reduce acne, treat pores, reduce acne marks, remove wrinkles, etc. Fillers are used to creating a fuller and smoother appearance of the face. Fat grafting involves transferring fat from one body part through liposuction and injecting it in areas required such as lips, hands, etc. Lastly, laser treatment is used to treat wrinkles, fine lines, abnormal pigmentation, etc. 

Tips for Cosmetic Surgery

It is very important to know all the pros and cons, lifestyle adjustments, precautions, side effects, etc. before opting for cosmetic surgery. Some tips that will help make a better decision include:

  • Choose an experienced surgeon with a good track record
  • Talk to the surgeon about your concerns and why you want the surgery
  • Speak to the surgeon about the area of surgery and seek advice; though make your own decision without much persuasion, but the advice is always better
  • Get complete details about the procedure, and analyze its advantages and disadvantages thoroughly
  • Assess all adjustments, risks, precautions, side effects that might be short-term or long-term
  • Choose the right time for surgery; avoid strenuous times such as shifting homes, marriage, changing jobs, cities, etc.
  • Choose cosmetic surgery if it gives you the confidence, do no aim to please any other person
  • Do not travel too far for the surgery; in case needed, make sure all arrangement is made before, especially if travelling abroad for the surgery.
  • Be aware of any complications that may arise during or after the surgery, such as:
  • Pain
  • Disturbance in movement or normal functioning of the body part
  • Appearance of white skin near an injection site
  • Stroke or signs of stroke

In all, cosmetic surgery, for any reason should be done after considerable evaluation.